The proposed monograph examines the basics of information theory in philosophical and mathematical terms. Information is identified as a reflection of real objects, processes and phenomena, refracted through the worldview and skills of the subject who perceives it. This results in information objects, which are materialized information that differs to some extent from its original source. In the realization of all this a great role is played by the subject who has carried out the reflection.
The basic laws and theorems related to the dialectic of information are presented.
Most important of all is the law on information storage. He reveals one of nature's greatest secrets: "There will be no heat death in the universe!" The wave function of microparticles as an element of system reliability was studied. A formula for the amount of reliable information is derived as a continuation of the fundamental formula of Louis Boltzmann-Claude Shannon. A criterion for the quality (value) of the information has been introduced. The criterion thus introduced will help to maintain the equilibrium state (homeostasis) of the world information
The paper presents the main aspects of the reliability of the information, and in its application the software reliability is specially studied. The main generalizing parameters of the information in the field of modeling of the different types of systems are shown: technical, economic, social, etc., some algorithms for decision making and concrete realized risk analysis of an air accident.
The monograph is intended for students and doctoral students in technical, mathematical,
economic and humanitarian higher education institutions. It can be useful for specialists from research institutes and centers.